Steps for removing older Kernel-versions from UBUNTU

After each update of your UBUNTU #Linux system,in ur Grub menu  you can see many versions of it may seem odd for you.but actually its showing the ability of a linux system of having multiple kernels.Anyway here i am helping you people those who had felt it as an odd.

Step 1-:  First and foremost we need to identify which kernel you are currently running for that issuing of the commands below will help

    uname -r  


uname -a

Then it wil show an output like this

That will be your current kernel which you are using right now.

Step 2-: Next we gonna need the versions of kernels installed on your system for that we need to issue the following command

   dpkg -l | grep linux-headers-*

   This command will list the installed kernels as in my system it is

Step 3:- Now the final step is to remove the kernels other than the one u got when you had issued the command uname -r.So with apt-get command you gonna attain it.with this command you can remove the respective kernels by specifying the version one by one.

  sudo apt-get remove inux-headers-2.6.32-21 linux-headers-

the version 2.6.32-21 will be removed.

 And guys i prefer you please dont remove all the versions of the installed kernels atleast keep a version,so that if your current version get corrupt or fail,It might be useful for you. 🙂


Auto Mounting Hard Drives on UBUNTU

Today.. (Friday Sep 3  2010 ,8:45PM) i feel like blogging…heheh because only a day back i found some other useful for all the geeks 😉 ..

I was experiencing the problem of hard-drive mounting right from the start i began using linux…thought of that was a glitch 😦 with linux..

and i thought it cant be resolved first…afterwards i searched UBUNTU forums there i got the solution..i was happy and now i had made my drives automount on startup…

I was having many difficulties  with drives that are not automounting after a restart 😦 some are

1)Shortcuts specified on desktop wont work..

2)Music player says “cant find file location”..

3)Torrents wont start..

All these had troubled me somewhat anyway GOOGLE search and UBUNTU forums had helped me to find it..and i would like to         share with u people via my simple blog.. 🙂 i am doing this because am supporter of OPEN SOURCE 🙂  and i support FOSS ideologies :)..

The Software i got to solve this glitch(as i feel :)) is Pysdm…Its a simple GUI tool which so much userfriendly..if u are  novice this could be useful rather going into editing <<<“fstab”>>>>!

All you have to do is simply install this tool by going into the TERMINAL and issuing the following commands:

sudo apt-get install pysdm

By issuing the above command you will be able to install Pysdm to your system..and you can run it by issuing the command:

sudo pysdm

or else navigate to Menu

System->Administration->Storage Device Manager.

Once you install and open Pysdm you will be able to see a window like the above :)and there you can choose your harddrives listed and can tick the option to automount during boot..there its done Buddy!mounted…

Enjoy UBUNTU ‘s freedom.. :)”HUMANITY TO OTHERS”

Cairo-Dock->Customizing Lucyd Lynx

Friends its been a long time since my  last blog about Lucyd Lynx,well i think a gap is needed for the ideas to “reincarnate”,well i had taken my own time,and i feel now  i had to get back to the field again with Linux,well for me these days there is no game without linux,here am presenting my experience with Cairo-Dock one of the smart and sexiest way to dress up Lucyd 😉 sounds naughty naaa..anyway what am speaking is the fact,and you itself can experience it.

Lucyd with Cairo

Cairo-Dock,its an animated app for the desktop,got certain eye catching views and effects,and it has got many advantages such as its compatibility with beryl,compiz-fusion,kwin etc and also now we can use Cairo- dock with OPENGL.In Cairo-Dock firstly we are installing the Dock and the installation of various plug-ins are done as another phase.


1)from a  repository

2)from a .deb package

3)by compilation

Here am explaining the first two methods 🙂


launch terminal and type the following commands:

      sudo -v

      echo "deb $(lsb_release -sc) cairo-dock ## Cairo-Dock-Stable" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list
      wget -q -O- | sudo apt-key add -
      sudo apt-get update
      sudo apt-get install cairo-dock cairo-dock-plug-ins.



     sudo apt-get install libcairo2 librsvg2-2 libglitz1 libglitz-glx1



From the above mentioned link debian package of cairo-dock can be downloaded and these packages can be installed with an app installer,or via from terminal by navigating to the corresponding directory where the package has been downloaded by “cd”.and after the issue the following commands to install.

      sudo dpkg -i cairo-dock*.deb
      sudo apt-get -f install


some screen shot here

My Ubuntu 10.04LTS-Lucid Linux

Well friends,i had upgraded my Karmic Koala to version 10.04 Lucyd Lynx,wow finally i got the freedom,its been a wonderfull experience in this new UBUNTU world,where,i can have fast and secure browsing Mozilla Firefox 3.6,can handle my “techie” 😉 notes with,and the most attracted with me is EMPATHY where i can integrate gmail,yahoo,aol,msn chat accounts,not only that MY UBUNTU is “SOCIAL FROM START ITSELF” means in MY UBUNTU10.04.I can Read and update socialnetworks instantly. Ubuntu’s new Me Menu lets you access your Facebook and Twitter accounts (and more) straight away. Connect to your chat channels and make updates through a single window. Being sociable has never been so easy.i found it as a great idea and i am using it too…,and also with F-Spot i can view pictures,organise them .and also the new look UBUNTU SOFTWARE CENTER IS ALSO ATTARCTIVE, a rapid change had been made to the interface of SOFTWARE CENTRE as compared from earlier versions,well i loved karmic but now this LUCYD is taking over it 🙂 .i am also having a better graphics interface and also the icons and the new theme which LUCYD had brought to us is amazing,new  themes and icons are more attarctive,some false sayings are there that stylish look is only for microsoft’s products but i completely disagree with that,once you been through my UBUNT’S desktop,then you will feel what style  means,i can assure everyone the new interface of this UBUNTU 10.04 is the best ever…there is no comparison to it its the best.So my Dear Friends come join the path of opensource,join the path of progress ;)promote LINUX,promote UBUNTU 🙂




GRUB 2 is the default boot loader and manager for Ubuntu 9.10 (Karmic Koala) and many other operating systems. As the computer starts GRUB 2 either presents a menu and awaits user input or automatically transfers control to an operating system kernel. GRUB 2 is a descendant of GRUB (Grand Unified Boot loader). It has been completely rewritten to provide the user significantly increased flexibility and performance. GRUB 2 is Open Source software.

To determine your version, use grub-install -v.  (grub1.96 or later)


  • Scripting support including conditional statements and functions
  • Dynamic module loading
  • Rescue mode
  • Custom Menus
  • Themes
  • Graphical boot menu support and improved splash capability
  • Boot LiveCD ISO images directly from hard drive
  • New configuration file structure
  • Non-x86 platform support (such as PowerPC)
  • Universal support for UUIDs (not just Ubuntu)


GRUB 2’s default menu will look familiar to GRUB users but there are a great number of differences beneath the surface.

  • On a new install of Ubuntu 9.10 with no other installed operating system, GRUB 2 will boot directly to the login prompt or Desktop. No menu will be displayed.
  • Hold down SHIFT to display the menu during boot (formerly ESC in GRUB legacy).
  • No /boot/grub/menu.lst. It has been replaced by /boot/grub/grub.cfg.
  • There is no “/find boot/grub/stage1” at the grub prompt. Stage 1.5 has been eliminated.
  • The main menu file, /boot/grub/grub.cfg, is not meant to be edited, even by ‘root’.
  • grub.cfg is overwritten anytime there is a update, a kernel is added/removed, or the user runs update-grub
  • The user can use a custom file, /etc/grub.d/40_custom, in which the user can place his own entries. This file will not be overwritten.
  • The primary configuration file for changing menu display settings is /etc/default/grub.
  • There are multiple files for configuring the menu – /etc/default/grub mentioned above, and all the files in the /etc/grub.d/ folder.
  • Partition numbering has changed. The first partition is now 1 rather than 0. The first device is still 0, however (no change).
  • Automated searches for other operating systems, such as Windows, whenever update-grub is executed.
  • No changes made in the configuration files will take effect until the update-grub command is also run.


GRUB 2 is installed by default on new installations of Ubuntu 9.10 (Karmic Koala). Releases such as Ubuntu 9.04 Jaunty Jackalope which are upgraded to 9.10 will retain GRUB unless the user elects to upgrade to GRUB 2. Previous releases of Ubuntu can be upgraded to GRUB 2 if the user desires.

You can check the current version installed on your system via Synaptic or from the command line. Open a Terminal (Applications > Accessories > Terminal) and enter the following:

grub-install -v

                                                                                 credits UBUNTU :)

Getting Ready for Lucid Lynx

Time runs away fast. Six months just goes as six days! I still remember the day which I

installed Ubuntu 9.10 Karmic Koala!

Oh well, it’s now time for the next release in the cycle.

As all you know, it is Ubuntu 10.04 code-named ‘Lucid Lynx‘.

Like many other geeks, I love tracking the development of GNU/Linux distros!

Especially, what bleeding edge packages will be there in the new release,

what will happen to that pre-installed package, etc.. When it comes to new artwork,

I completely become ignorant of my surroundings, because I’m an addict

of eye-candy unlike other geeks!

I mostly depend on dedicated blogs for getting the latest news on Lucid. OMG Ubuntu,Ubuntu Root, WorksWithU, Web Upd8, Another Ubuntu are worth reading daily! Another great resource is official Ubuntu Mailing Lists. Ubuntu Forums is also a good place.

Learning ourselves the new features will help us to promote the release

among our friends and convince them and to invite to the free(as in freedom)

world of GNU/Linux and FOSS! But, be careful when recommending

GNU/Linux to some non-techies. From my

experience, when they get stucked with any problems, they even

doesn’t have the patience for Googling and will bash us and FOSS!

So keep in mind, GNU/Linux may not be the OS for everyone and

those who love buying a licence for huge money to use a piece of crap software.

Community has put up some countdown banners for your blogs and websites

. You can grab it here. There are also Release Parties worldwide to

celebrate the new release. Inviting public to the party and giving away Lucid CD’s

adds up to promotion. I think it’s the best social work I can do, i.e., freeing

up people from proprietary giants and locked knowledge!

Just following the development doesn’t return back anything to the community.

So, in the mean while, take some time to contribute to the Ubuntu Manual project.

It’s the most newbie friendly Ubuntu guide I have ever seen. Contributing to it is not a big deal.

First you have to download the ‘halfly-baked’ manual, start reading it from any page,

if you found some typo or grammatical errors, just submit it.